By Disha ShettyAbout one in two individuals (52 percent) will live in water-scarce regions by 2050, as climate change affects the water cycle and makes resource management more difficult, said the World Water Development Report 2020 released by the United Nations (UN) On March 22, 2020, marked as World Water Day, countries in the tropics, mountains, island nations and those in the far north will be the most affected, the report estimated. India, cut in the middle by the Tropic of Cancer, and with nearly a dozen Himalayan states and Union territories to the north, will be affected by these events. Climate change is also a poverty multiplier that could force 100 million people to extreme poverty by 2030, according to the report. By changing rain patterns and precipitating frequent floods and droughts, it would severely affect people in agriculture and fishing as India passes reported from more than seven states in India in the last two years. India is the fifth most vulnerable among 181 countries to the impact of climate change, we reported in December 2019.Women in a village pond washing utensils and vegetables. Image Credit: Wikipedia Currently, 2.2 billion people worldwide do not have access to safely managed drinking water, is water available and free of contamination. Almost 4.2 billion or about 55 percent of the world’s population lives without safely managed sanitation, where there are no provisions to safely treat and dispose of waste, according to the report. “Adaptation is one way to moderate the risks of these impacts, while mitigation seeks to address the causes, “said Richard Connor, the report’s editor-in-chief, during a Skype interaction with journalists about its highlights. There are two things that can be done about it, he said, “either you find a way to reduce carbon emissions or you find a way to sequester that carbon.” If the world needs to stop climate change at a 1.5 degree C increase compared With the pre-industrial era, then countries must reduce global carbon emissions by 45 percent by 2030 and achieve net net emissions by 2050, according to the previous UN reports. Soil, bodies of water, forests and wetlands are natural carbon sequestrants that store carbon, also sometimes called carbon sinks. Currently, global carbon emissions continue climbingStress due to climate change will make it difficult to achieve Sustainable Development Goal-6 (SDG-6) That seeks access to drinking water and sanitation for all in 2030. Food security, human health, urban and rural settlements, energy production, industrial development and economic growth depend on water and, therefore , are vulnerable to the impact of climate change. Aggregate Report: The official release of the report has been postponed in light of the spread of the coronavirus, and the authors cautioned that current uncertainties make it difficult to predict how the situation will develop locally in different countries. The authors dedicated the report to young people who have emerged as climate leaders, as we reported in September 2019. Countries must take steps to reduce their carbon emissions and protect existing carbon sinks, the authors said. “It is equally, if not more important, that the water community includes the role of water in adaptation and mitigation within the NDC (Nationally Determined Contributions)“Connor said. NDCs are the promises that countries have made to the UN under the 2015 Paris Agreement to stop global warming. India NDC they have references to improve wastewater treatment and increase water supply to urban areas.Women in the streets of Jaisalmer, Rajasthan collecting water. Image Credit: Flickr / nevil zaveriMake water part of the solutionIn the past 100 years, global water use has increased by a factor of six and continues to grow steadily by about one percent each year, according to the report. Extreme weather events, such as floods, are related to vector-borne diseases, injuries, financial losses, and displacement. Existing evidence suggests that climate change is destined to make extreme weather events, such as floods, droughts and storms, frequent and more intense. Poor water management tends to exacerbate the impacts of climate change, the report adds. “Water doesn’t need to be a problem, it can be part of the solution,” it said. Audrey azoulay, CEO of UNESCO, in a press release. “Water can support efforts to mitigate and adapt to climate change.” Worldwide, 80 to 90 percent of wastewater is discharged into the environment without any form of treatment, the report estimated. Efficient wastewater management could be one way to better manage water stress, the report recommended. Traditional water management methods, such as wetland protection, as well as proven “conservation agriculture” techniques allow preserve soil structure, organic matter and moisture, despite the decrease in rainfall, according to the report. He advocated the reuse of partially treated wastewater for agriculture and industry, without necessarily making it safe to drink. “While most countries recognize water in their ‘portfolio of stocks,’ few of them have actually calculated the costs of these actions and even fewer have presented specific projects, “said Azoulay.Worst hit: the poor and women Most of these impacts, as we said, will manifest themselves in tropical areas where most of the developing world can be found. Developing countries have less capacity to respond to the impacts of climate change, and the poorest groups and societies are the most vulnerable to minor and major shocks, according to the report. The impacts of climate change on the availability of resources Water conditions in space and time affect the poor disproportionately through its effect on agriculture, fisheries, health and natural disasters, according to the report. In particular, these impacts are disproportionately felt by poor women and girls, who experience inequalities in access to water, sanitation and hygiene, increasing gender inequalities and threatening their health, well-being, livelihoods and education. .“Women in developing countries play a key role in water management,” said Abou Amani, coordinator of the report. “Women will be among the people who will be affected by the problem of water stress.” Recent studies of mountain peoples in the Himalayas in four countries highlighted similar resultsas reported by IndiaSpend on March 1, 2020. Indigenous peoples are highly sensitive to the effects of climate change, especially when they are unable to apply traditional knowledge and strategies for adapting to and mitigating environmental changes, added the UN report.Need for climate mitigation, adaptation and financing.The report noted both the need to adapt and mitigate. While adaptation may be a combination of natural and technological options, mitigation would include reducing sources of carbon emissions and enhancing sinks of greenhouse gases. Wetlands host the largest carbon stocks among terrestrial ecosystems. , store twice as much carbon as forests. They also offer multiple co-benefits including flood and drought mitigation, water purification, and biodiversity. Its restoration and conservation is critically important, according to the report, but the key would be to provide countries with the finances they need to help adapt and mitigate, the report suggested. While mitigation accounted for 93.8 percent of climate finance in 2016, water projects consisted of a fraction of one percent of that sum. “Developing countries face problems related to lack of investment, ”said Amani. “They do not have the means to mobilize resources.” This article was originally posted in IndiaSpend. Find the latest and upcoming tech gadgets online at Tech2 Gadgets. 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