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Do you know what the 5G network is and what advantages it offers us?

After almost a decade of its creation, the 5G network is becoming a reality. Operators began developing fixed 5G systems in 2018, and the mobile 5G network is already available in several US cities in 2019, with a major implementation planned for 2020.

But there are still more questions than answers. Do people know exactly what the 5G network is? In addition, the first 5G smart phones are also being developed and launched. Of course, there is the debate about which operator to offer the best service. Surely you have questions, and we are here to help you. We tell you in this guide everything you need to know about the 5G network.

What is the 5G network and how does it work?

Before explaining how it works, it is probably a good idea to explain what 5G is. There are many specific details that we will discuss later in this publication, but here is a quick introduction.

5G is the next generation of mobile broadband that will eventually replace or at least increase your 4G LTE connection. With 5G vers upload and download speeds will be exponentially faster. The latency or the time it takes for devices to communicate with each other and in wireless networks will also decrease dramatically.

Now that we know what 5G is, we have to understand how it works, since it does it differently than the traditional 4G LTE network. From spectrum bands to small cells, here you will find everything you need to know about the internal operation of the 5G network.

Spectrum

GSMA / ITU

Unlike LTE, 5G operates in three different spectrum bands. Although this may seem to us that it is not important, the truth is that it has a transcendental effect on your daily use.

He low band spectrum It can also be described as a sub 1GHz spectrum. It is mainly the spectrum band used by operators in the US. UU. for LTE, and it's running out quickly. While the low band spectrum offers a great coverage and penetration area, there is a major drawback: maximum data rates will reach 100Mbps.

T-Mobile is the key player when it comes to the low band spectrum. The operator acquired a massive amount of 600MHz spectrum at an FCC auction in 2017 and is rapidly developing its national 5G network.

The middle band spectrum It provides faster coverage and better latency than that found in the low band. However, it fails to penetrate buildings, as well as the low band spectrum. Expect maximum speeds of up to 1 Gbps in the midband spectrum.

The print has the majority of the mid-band spectrum not used in the US. UU. The operator is using Massive MIMO to improve the coverage area and penetration in the middle band. Massive MIMO groups multiple antennas in a single box, and in a single cellular tower, they create multiple simultaneous beams to different users.

Sprint also use Beamforming to improve the 5G service in the middle band. Beam formation sends a unique signal focused on each and every user of the cell, and the systems that use it monitor each user to ensure they have a consistent signal.

But really, the high band spectrum It is what most people think when you name it 5G. It is often referred to as mmWave. The high band spectrum can offer maximum speeds of up to 10 Gbps and has a very low latency. The main drawback of the high band is that it has a low coverage area and the penetration of the building is poor.

Both AT&T and Verizon are being deployed in the high band spectrum. 5G coverage for both operators will be carried out by LTE, while they work to build networks nationwide. Since the high band spectrum moves outside the penetration and user area for the high speed and coverage area, they will depend on small cells.

The small cells they are low power base stations that cover small geographical areas. With small cells, carriers using mmWave for 5G can improve the overall coverage area. Combined with beam formation, small cells can offer extremely fast coverage with low latency.