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NETWORK TOPOLOGY – WHAT IT IS, TYPES AND CHARACTERISTICS

The network topology is extremely important when designing a Computer network. Therefore, it is important to know the different types of network topology since they define the way in which these computers or nodes are going to be connected. In this article we will explain it in a simple way.

What is a network topologist?

The network topologist is defined as a Physical or logical map of a network for data exchange; This is the way in which a network has been designed and the way in which its different parts are interconnected.

Keep in mind that the concept of net It is defined as a set of interconnected nodes, where each node is a point where a curve intersects with itself. Each node in particular will depend on the type of network in question.

What is a network topology for?

There are several functions of a network topology It is actually in accordance with the type of function that is sought to be fulfilled through the type of network topology that is used, that the functions will be able to be identified as such.

In this regard, it should be mentioned that these types of variables are going to be defined according to the factors that are to be treated, the number of machines that are interconnected, the type of access to the physical environment that they want to stay, among other aspects .

Related Article:PUBLIC AND PRIVATE NETWORKS

Characteristics of a network topology

  • Physical topologist Concept with which the actual arrangement of the machines is defined, the network devices, he cabling or the media in the network.
  • Logical topologist This is the way by which machines communicate through the physical environment. The most common are broadcast or Ethernet and the transmission of tokens or Token Ring.
  • Mathematical topologist They are maps of nodes and links, almost always forming patterns or geometric figures.

Types of network topology

The types of network topology they allude to the logical topology through which the interconnections between the nodes of the network are presented. It is a reference to a geometrical form or a logical form in which work stations are distributed and each of the means that connect them.

INDEX

Ring topologist

It is only composed of a closed ring that is formed by nodes and links, where each node will have a single input and an output connection. They will only be connected to the two adjacent nodes so they will avoid collision failures

Advantages

  • Equal access to information for all nodes or computers
  • Performance is maintained for more than several nodes work simultaneously
  • Very solid architecture

Disadvantages

  • Difficult to diagnose problems and repair them
  • Intermediate stations to send files can see the data packet since they will necessarily have to go through them
  • Slow transmission

Double Ring Topologist

In a double ring topology there are two concentric rings, where each host in the network will be connected to the two rings, although the two rings will not be directly connected to each other. In other words, it is a topology similar to the ring one, but with the difference that in order to increase the flexibility and reliability of the network, there is a redundant ring to connect the same devices.

Advantages:

  • You can send data in both directions
  • It has redundancy (better fault tolerance)

Disadvantage:

  • It is more expensive than the simple ring topology

Tree topology

It is very similar to the extended star topology. In this case the central difference is that it does not have a central node. Instead of the above, there is a trunk link node, which is almost always occupied by a hub or switch, from where the other nodes or computers branch. It is a variation of the bus network with the difference that a failure in a node does not mean the total interruption of communications.

Advantages

  • Faster
  • Easy to stir problems
  • Supported by multiple vendors of software Y Hardware.

Disadvantages

  • It requires a lot of wiring and is somewhat expensive
  • If the trunk segment falls the entire network will fall
  • It presents an extremely complex configuration
  • If a node is dropped, all who are connected to it will also fall

Bus topology

Is a network topologist where all the nodes are directly connected with a link and there is no other type of connection between the nodes. Physically, each host is connected to a common cable, so they can communicate directly, but breaking this cable causes the hosts to be disconnected.

Advantages

  • Simplicity in its structure
  • Easy to implement and grow
  • Easy adaptation
  • Does not take up much space

Disadvantages

  • There is a limit of nodes and is determined by the quality of the signal
  • Complexity to isolate network failures
  • If the channel suffers a problem, the entire network is affected
  • Many packages are lost due to message collisions

Star topologist

It is a kind of topologist where there is a central node from which the other links to the other nodes radiate. It is through the central node, almost always occupied by a hub, where the information circulating through the network passes. This network does not present any type of interconnection between the computers since all the information passes through the central node

Advantages

  • New equipment can be added easily
  • Centralize the network
  • Easy to find faults
  • It has a quick reconfiguration

Disadvantages

  • If the central node (hub / switch) fails the entire network will fall
  • Expensive because it requires more wiring than the ring topology

Mesh topology

Also known as full mesh topology, implies that each node is connected to all other nodes. In that sense, you can take messages from one node to the other in different ways. In other words, it is not possible that there is any interruption in communications if it is armed correctly

Advantages

  • Reduce the risk of failures
  • An error in a node does not imply the fall of the entire network

Disadvantages

  • Very expensive since connecting all the nodes to each other requires a lot of cables
  • They use a lot of resources

Hybrid topologist

It is also known as mixed topologist and in this case networks can use different network topologies to connect with each other. In practical terms, the hybrid or mixed topology It is one of the most frequent and is a derivation of the union of several types of topology. It allows to take the advantages of different networks to be able to arm one especially for the needs of the client.

Advantages

  • Adapted to the needs of each client
  • It allows the future to generate network extensions

Disadvantages

  • Very expensive since it requires implementing adaptation devices between different networks
  • Very laborious since it not only requires more time to plan it but to implement it

Parts of a topology

  • Computers (computers, laptops, printers, scanners)
  • Hub
  • Switch
  • Router
  • Servers
  • Cabling

What is the best network topologist?

There is no better network topology than another in a strict sense, but this answer will be found according to the needs of each objective, in addition to what you have and what you want. In other words, the best network topology It is an answer that depends on the conditions in which one works.

Finally it should be noted that the hybrid or mixed topology It is one of the most frequent, since it is committed to a combination of several topologists to solve the situation in a precise and particular way. Anyway, we must remember that it is a combination of topologies and therefore reinforces the idea that there is not one better than another, but that each project brings with it certain requirements.

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